Lavinia Fontana (1552-1614) was born in Bologna where she received an elite education in letters and music, and only later studied art with her father, the painter Prospero Fontana . In 1577 she married Gian Paolo Zappi, a minor nobleman with little money. She gave birth eleven times, although only four of her children survived infancy, and just three outlived her. Fontana was one of the first female painters of the Renaissance to be widely recognized during her lifetime and professionally successful. Fontana spent most of her life in Bologna, where she became renowned for her many portraits of fashionable women of upper class circles. She was equally celebrated for her sacred paintings, which captured counter-reformation sensibilities and earned her many commissions from the pope. To be nearer the papal court, for which she became official portraitist, during the last decade of her life she moved to Rome. There she was honored by being accepted into the artistic Academy of San Luca, normally closed to women.
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